This WELL study paper focuses on the use of chlorination for disinfection of water in small water supply systems in low- and middle-income countries. The text concentrates on the use of gravity- or water-powered systems that can be used where electricity is either unreliable, or is not available - a situation that often applies to small schemes, in developing countries. The use of chlorine gas for disinfection is not considered in this paper, partly because chlorine gas is not usually readily available in many areas of low- and middle-income countries. Another reason is that chlorine is a very poisonous gas and the risks associated with safely transporting and using it in small water treatment installations mean that it is not usually appropriate for such facilities. The initial intention was to gather information from literature and to gather reported experiences from field practitioners. The widely publicised requests for information from the field did not result in a large number of responses. Since the length of the paper is limited the reader is regularly directed to other sources of information for details that can not be covered in this report.

Skinner Brian
Loughborough University WEDC - Water, Engineering and Development Centre GB
Watertechniek - 350 waterbehandeling